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Sciences, culture, philosophy.

by Philippe Jeanjacquot last modified Dec 18, 2012 04:20 PM


Last year we work first on the observation. One of the students asked questions: what is that philosophy?
Science and the philosophy form part of the culture.
That is what is meant by culture?
Culture is opposed to the nature. Nature is all that is already there, which is given before the conscious human intervention. Culture is the science and philosophy. Culture in general, is opposed to the nature. It enters the culture whenever there is a conscious human intervention (scientists, gravity, relativity theories on philosophical).

Questions to assess knowledge of culture, philosophy

1) What is that science?
2) What is the purpose of science?
3) Distinguish between science and technology?
4) What types of science?

Student answers and analysis:

1) What is that science?
Céline: due to study something or something, understanding, how it is formed, how it works. Analysis: each science must define its purpose. There may be conflicts at the borders. Each science can delineate its domain (mathematics are different Physics).
Valentin: Science needs a problem
Analysis: is also the case in the religions…It is linked to Human, it is not characteristic of science
David: an attempt to answer questions
Anthony: A study. What should be its characteristic to be scientist
Pierrick: must rely on experiment
Analysis: what is the feature of a scientific approach? For example, astrology sends also to facts. Science must take a rational approach. There are surely more rational approaches. It is pure, purely rational science is mathematics, in this case, the experimental verification is unnecessary, or comprising a showdown with the experience.
2)What is the purpose of science?
Valentin: Discovering new things, improve our living conditions.
Analysis: If we want to distinguish between science and technology, it must be considered as pure.
What Newton, Galileo and Einstein wanted: discovering new things, understand, know (for itself).
The purpose of science is knowledge for its own sake.
Aristotle and Ptolemy thought to understand everything in physics and astronomy. Today we know that this is not the case.
3) Distinguish between science and technology?
Analysis: Science and technology are completely intertwined: This is the technological society. Is the purpose of technology is the same as that of science. The technique used to improve the lives of human beings. It is utilitarian. It seeks to respond to a hardware problem. The technique is the means, methods to achieve a goal that has been set. All the cultural uses of technology (eg in philosophy: the art of essay)
4) What types of science?
In question 1 we already saw that mathematics are pure and rational science.
Valentin: Earth Sciences,
Vincent: Regroup with the natural sciences
Adrien: Biology.

Analysis: If we add to the science earth sciences, biology, physics, astronomy, chemistry, but not math. How does one call? Experimental sciences
So we have mathematics, experimental sciences (Nature) (hard sciences, the terminology tends to disappear)
There is a third major category

David: philosophy is a science?
Adrian: Economy,

Analysis: Psychology, sociology, linguistics, history, geography, political: Humanities.
What you will find in common between philosophy and science? How to distinguish?
Pierrick: Philosophy has several fields of study (the largest difference is on the subject, we study science but also other things.
Analysis: Philosophy is not a defined object: anything can become an object for philosophical reflection (art, religion, science) nothing is excluded. The object of philosophy is all that can interest man.
From the perspective of the object: the philosophy differs from science. That is why philosophy is not a science.
Common point: the rational approach, philosophy and science share the search for a rational approach. The reason is the authority of one and another.
What cultural field differs from religion because it is not based on reason (eg the Holy Trinity).

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